In North America, they are more concentrated to the western states. [55] Other eastern sightings since 2010 have occurred in locations such as Greene County, Indiana,[56] Greenwich[57] and Milford, Connecticut,[58] Morgan County[59] Pike County,[60] and Whiteside County, Illinois,[61] and Bourbon County, Kentucky. Detailed research into attacks prior to 1991 showed that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. Claw incisions, which severed a jugular vein, indicated that the attacker was a felid; differential diagnosis ruled out other possible perpetrators. Forensic analysis found specimens of the child's hair and clothing fibers in the animal's stomach. Females are typically smaller. [68], It is speculated and believed by many that cougars from the western U.S. are recolonizing the eastern cougar's former range in the northeastern United States, and there is growing evidence that supports this claim, indicating a small but growing population of western cougars in the northeastern states, mostly cougars migrating from the midwestern United States, though possibly also from Canada. Genetic analysis of cougar mitochondrial DNA indicate that many of these are too similar to be recognized as distinct at a molecular level, but that only six phylogeographic groups exist. [48] DNA evidence has suggested its presence in eastern North America,[49] while a consolidated map of cougar sightings shows numerous reports from the mid-western Great Plains through to eastern Canada. [14][15] Early Spanish explorers of the Americas called it gato montés (meaning "cat of the mountain"), and león (meaning "lion"). Some commonly targeted species include deer, elk, moose, bighorn sheep, horse, pronghorn, mountain goat, and caribou. [110] Research has shown cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as much as 7 (in one study in South America) per 100 km2 (38 sq mi). They live in deserts, mountains, lowlands, mangrove forests, deciduous forests, canyons, prairies, and more. The Moche people represented the puma often in their ceramics. [104] In the United States, very large ranges have been reported in Texas and the Black Hills of the northern Great Plains, in excess of 775 km2 (300 sq mi). Bobcats are also much lighter, weighing around 11 to 35 pounds whereas mountain lions are heavy weighing around 66 to 187 pounds. There have been widely debated reports of possible recolonization of eastern North America. [32][31][33][34] Cougar size is smallest close to the equator and larger towards the poles. [162] The University of Pittsburgh campus has about 20 physical representations of panthers/cougars at different locations around the campus plus there are four such statues on the Panther Hollow Bridge over Panther Hollow. The animal is believed to have originated from the Black Hills of South Dakota. For example, a study in British Columbia observed that the population of mule deer, a favored cougar prey, was declining while the population of the less frequently preyed-upon white-tailed deer was increasing. [28] Adult males are around 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long from nose to tail tip, and females average 2.05 m (6.7 ft), with overall ranges between 1.50 to 2.75 m (4.9 to 9.0 ft) nose to tail suggested for the species in general. Height: 6 Feet. [69] Mountain lions are well documented in the state of Wisconsin, with several confirmed sightings with photo and video evidence being as recent as August 13, 2019, with many other sightings earlier that year and during the previous year of 2018. [134], As with many predators, a cougar may attack if cornered, if a fleeing human stimulates their instinct to chase, or if a person "plays dead". [35] Its most important prey species are various deer species, particularly in North America; mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, and even bull moose are taken. Learned, individual prey recognition was observed, as some cougars rarely killed bighorn sheep, while others relied heavily on the species. [131] By 2004, the count had climbed to 88 attacks and 20 deaths. [29][30] Of this length, the tail typically accounts for 63 to 95 cm (25 to 37 in). To the Apache and Walapai of Arizona, the wail of the cougar was a harbinger of death. [43] The term "black panther" is used colloquially to refer to melanistic individuals of other species, particularly jaguars and leopards. The same study showed the highest proportion of attacks to have occurred in British Columbia, particularly on Vancouver Island where cougar populations are especially dense. It is capable of leaping from the ground up to 5.5 m high into a tree. [1] In the Santa Ana Mountains, it prefers steep canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and dense brush. [133] Lightly populated New Mexico reported an attack in 2008, the first there since 1974. [35] However, a study by Gutiérrez-González and López-González showed that the cougar and jaguar in Central or North America may share the same prey, depending on its abundance. A current form in Brazil is suçuarana. [132], Within North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. Six days later, and about 56 km (35 mi) to the southeast, a hair sample was found in Carroll County. Mountain Lion. [18] They prey on anything from insects and rabbits, to 1,500 lb. The term puma is also used in the United States. Mountain lion fur is unspotted and tan-brown in color with a whitish throat, belly and inner legs. 2002–2003 Panther Genetfic Restoration Annual Report", "U.S. Declares Eastern Cougar Extinct, With an Asterisk", Northeast Region, U.S. The cougar is an ambush predator that pursues a wide variety of prey. The Canadian federal agency called Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada rates its current data as "insufficient" to draw conclusions regarding the eastern cougar's survival and its website says that "despite many sightings in the past two decades from eastern Canada, there are insufficient data to evaluate the taxonomy or assign a status to this cougar." Game animals and shooting in North America. Oregon's first fatal cougar attack in the wild claims hiker near Mount Hood,, Fauna of the California chaparral and woodlands, Extant Middle Pleistocene first appearances, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cougar range (without recent confirmations across northern Canadian states and Alaska), This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 23:59. You never know what you will see in the mountains. [42], Cougar coloring is plain (hence the Latin concolor) but can vary greatly across individuals and even siblings. There have been unconfirmed sightings in Elliotsville Plantation, Maine (north of Monson) and as early as 1997 in New Hampshire. Mountain Lion is $19.99 plus tax. [67] The Bay Area Puma Project aims to obtain information on cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities. It is an adaptable, generalist species, occurring in most American habitat types. Mountain Lion vs Bobcat — Know the Difference - Capitola-Soquel, CA - A mountain lion got stuck in downtown Santa Cruz Thursday morning. [84] Although cougars can kill coyotes, the latter have been documented attempting to prey on cougar cubs. [113] Male ranges may include or overlap with those of females but, at least where studied, not with those of other males, which reduces conflict between cougars. The distribution and other characteristics are also important to distinguish them separately. Its range spans from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes in South America, and is the most widespread of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere. In both reports, sheep were the most frequently attacked. The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae. Cougar vs Mountain Lion . Mountain Lions are the largest predators currently in Rocky Mountain National Park. Chronic stress can result in low reproductive rates when in captivity as well as in the field. This cat’s fur is tawny yellow, with patches of reddish or silver in some regions. Causes of death in the wild include disability and disease, competition with other cougars, starvation, accidents, and, where allowed, human hunting. [92] Nevertheless, there is a measurable effect on the quality of deer populations by puma predation. ", "Observatory: When Mountain Lions Hunt, They Prey on the Weak", "British Columbia cougars found to prey on seals, sea lions", "Jaguar interactions with pumas and prey at the northern edge of jaguars' range", "Tracking Penguins in Patagonia's Monte León National Park", 10.1894/0038-4909(2005)050[0466:SBIP]2.0.CO;2, "A technique for non-invasively detecting stress response in cougars", 10.2193/0091-7648(2004)032[0711:ATFNDS]2.0.CO;2, "Cameras Reveal the Secret Lives of a Mountain Lion Family – Sharon Negri (2013)", "Epidemiology, Genetic Diversity, and Evolution of Endemic Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in a Population of Wild Cougars", "Adaptive social strategies in a solitary carnivore", "Behavior of cougar in Iowa and the Midwest", "Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. One report describes a large pack of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female cougar and her kittens,[75] while in nearby Sun Valley, Idaho, a 2-year-old male cougar was found dead, apparently killed by wolf pack. Heres some great footage of a mountain lion straying too close to a backyard with some dogs in it! [23] [35] Cougars appear better than jaguars at exploiting a broader prey niche and smaller prey. The scat was tested positive as being from a mountain lion. [164], Large species of the family Felidae native to the Americas, "Mountain lion" redirects here. They are known by many different names in different regions. The mountain lion burst through the family's back gate, raccoon in his mouth, about 1:30 a.m. The Inca city of Cusco is reported to have been designed in the shape of a cougar, and the animal also gave its name to both Inca regions and people. Culver et al. [4] In 1774, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon converted cuguacu ara to cuguar, which was later modified to "cougar" in English. Their range stretches from Canada all the way to South America. Standing still may cause the cougar to consider a person easy prey. In United States these cats live primarily in western states and Florida. It is an adaptable, generalist species, occurring in most American habitat types. DNA tests were consistent with cougars from the Black Hills of South Dakota. Also referred to as cougar, puma, catamount and panther, mountain lions thrive in many habitats. While generally loners, cougars will reciprocally share kills with one another and seem to organize themselves into small communities defined by the territories of dominant males. Mountain lions are some of the most widespread of all large, terrestrial mammals. Small to mid-sized mammals are preferred, including large rodents such as the capybara. Additionally, they receive rabbits, large bones, and parts of carcasses. [88], In the southern portion of its range, the cougar and jaguar share overlapping territory. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. From Canada, populations of mountain lions live all the way to the tip of South America. [138], Pumas in the Southern cone of America – often called Argentine cougars by North Americans – are reputed to be extremely reluctant to attack man; in legend, they defended people against jaguars. They typically average one litter every two to three years throughout their reproductive lives,[104] though the period can be as short as one year. [131] Preceding attacks on humans, cougars display aberrant behavior, such as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. [85], Although it is less specialized than other big cats in predation of crocodilians, a case in Florida was documented in 2008 where a cougar hunted a sub-adult specimen of American alligator 2.69 meters long[86] (the largest registered crocodilian taken by a cougar), which suggests the ability of large cougars to prey on similar sized specimens of the remaining big crocodilian species with which they share habitat in different parts of the Americas (American crocodile, black caiman and Orinoco crocodile). The heavily populated state of California saw a dozen attacks 1986 to 2004 (after just three from 1890 to 1985), including three fatalities. [12], In the western United States and Canada, it is also called "mountain lion", a name first used in writing in 1858. Fish and Wildlife Service, Committee on Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, "Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project", "Cougar Attacks on Humans: A Case Report", 10.1580/1080-6032(2003)14[169:CAOHAC]2.0.CO;2, 10.2193/0091-7648(2005)33[905:PRTCAB]2.0.CO;2, "Cougar attacks on humans in United States and Canada", "Confirmed mountain lion attacks in the United States and Canada 1890 – present", "Victim In Deadly Washington State Cougar Attack Had Boston Ties", Search continues for mountain lion that killed Pinos Altos man, Wounded mountain lion captured, killed near Pinos Altos, Second mountain lion captured near Pinos Altos, "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion? The lion is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females with a typical weight range of 150 to 250 kg (330 to 550 lb) for the former and 120 to 182 kg (265 to 400 lb) for the latter. Fights between the two animals are rare. Notwithstanding numerous reported sightings in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, it has been said that the evidence is inconclusive as "there may not be a distinct 'eastern' subspecies, and some sightings may be of escaped pets. Info: Human. Cougar seems to have come from an old South American Indian word, cuguacuarana, which was shortened to cuguar and then spelled differently. Between one and four new individuals entering a population per decade markedly increases persistence, thus highlighting the importance of habitat corridors. [33] The cat drags a kill to a preferred spot, covers it with brush, and returns to feed over a period of days. It stalks through brush and trees, across ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the back of its prey and a suffocating neck bite. [114], Home range sizes and overall cougar abundance depend on terrain, vegetation, and prey abundance. The effect had a dose-response relationship with very heavy (100% removal of adult puma) remedial hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts. Hudson, citing anecdotal evidence from hunters, claimed that pumas were positively inhibited from attacking people, even in self-defense. They are also known as pumas, cougars and panthers. It is no wonder they are known by so many names, as their range is so expansive, from Canada to South America. [160] The Algonquins and Ojibwe believe that the cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a sacred animal among the Cherokee.[161]. They can stand up to 35 in. [33] Females are in estrus for about 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period is approximately 91 days. The exhibits built for these cats are spacious, and usually provide a number of rocky features or climbing opportunities. [54], On April 14, 2008, police fatally shot a cougar on the north side of Chicago, Illinois. In professional hockey, the cougar was used by two mid-western teams and one northwestern team. [17] [82] One researcher in Oregon noted: "When there is a pack around, cougars are not comfortable around their kills or raising kittens [...] A lot of times a big cougar will kill a wolf, but the pack phenomenon changes the table. ", "2-Year-Old Boy Hurt In Pet Cougar Attack", "As species decline, so does research funding", "APORTES PRELIMINARES PARA UN PLAN DE CONSERVACIÓN Y MANEJO DEL PUMA (, "Effects of Remedial Sport Hunting on Cougar Complaints and Livestock Depredations", "On the role of Creation and Origin Myths in the Development of Inca State and Religion", "Friends of Panther Hollow Lake: PHL HISTORY", "The story of the Penn State Nittany Lion", "Search for Cougars in the East North America", Cougar Rewilding Foundation, formerly "Eastern Cougar Foundation", The Cougar Network --Using Science to Understand Cougar Ecology. They vary in size and weight, with males reaching up to 200 pounds and eight feet in length (one-third of their length is the tail). [101] Birds and small reptiles are sometimes preyed upon in the south, but this is rarely recorded in North America. Weapon(s): 8 inch Bowie Knife. [1] While specific state and provincial statistics are often available in North America, much less is known about the cat in its southern range. … Some instances of surplus killing have resulted in the deaths of 20 sheep in one attack. The Carolina Panthers of the National Football League have a black cat on their uniforms as opposed to a brownish- or tawny-coloured cat so it is most often presumed to represent a black panther, the black melanistic phase of either the jaguar, which actually only lived in the far southwestern United States not the southeastern United States where Carolina is located, or the leopard of Africa and Asia.
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