In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest, it is estimated that they supplied about 35% of the world's roundwood.[1]. From 1980 to 2000, about 50% of the 1.4 million hectares of pulpwood plantations in Indonesia have been established on what was formerly natural forest land. In Brazil, similar measures are required by government regulation. Planters maintained a record of the purchases, often adding exorbitant interest rates. This property was an English land grant to the Richard Ellis family and continues to be owned by his descendants. Harvesting was done by plucking individual leaves over several weeks as they ripened, or cutting entire tobacco plants and hanging them in vented tobacco barns to dry, called curing. They usually resided either in a part of the main house or in their own houses, which were normally more comfortable dwellings than those of their counterparts who worked in the fields. In village-type slave quarters on plantations with overseers, his house was usually at the head of the slave village rather than near the main house, at least partially due to his social position. The tree species used in a plantation is also an important factor. [9] Only the better-built examples tended to survive, and then usually only if they were turned to other uses after emancipation. These were usually roofed and often partially enclosed by latticework to keep out animals. The complex included everything from the main residence down to the pens for livestock. The value of the plantation came from its land and the slaves who toiled on it to produce crops for sale. This separation was partially due to the cooking fire generating heat all day long in an already hot and humid climate. This increased the efficiency of the churning to come. These same people produced the built environment: the main house for the plantation owner, the slave cabins, barns, and other structures of the complex. Plantations are an important aspect of the History of the Southern United States, particularly the antebellum era (pre-American Civil War). In 1947, the SC Power Company ran power lines to the house. This also offers both small dormitory and private accommodation with and without ensuite bathrooms. [55], Southern plantations depended upon slaves to do the agricultural work. [45] The wealthiest planters, such as the Virginia elite with plantations near the James River, owned more land and slaves than other farmers. He was also the record keeper of most crop inventories and held the keys to various storehouses. Fruit orchards are sometimes considered to be plantations. Find more similar words at! [32], The agricultural structures on plantations had some basic structures in common and others that varied widely. [14], Economic studies indicate that fewer than 30 percent of planters employed white supervisors for their slave labor. Others work unreasonably long hours and are paid subsistence wages that (in practice) may only be spent in the company store. The replacement of natural forest with tree plantations has also caused social problems. Since the well water in many areas was distasteful due to mineral content, the potable water on many plantations came from cisterns that were supplied with rainwater by a pipe from a rooftop catchment. Once a plantation is established, how it is managed becomes the important environmental factor. If natural forest is cleared for a planted forest then a reduction in biodiversity and loss of habitat will likely result. "[57] "The changes have begun to draw people long alienated by the sites' whitewashing of the past and to satisfy what staff call a hunger for real history, as plantations add slavery-focused tours, rebuild cabins and reconstruct the lives of the enslaved with help from their descendants. Today, as was also true in the past, there is a wide range of opinion as to what differentiated a plantation from a farm. Storage barns often housed unprocessed crops or those awaiting consumption or transport to market. It was the remaining liquid after the butter was removed from the churn. Plantation House Plans Plantation homes were once the mansions of the South. Industrial plantations are actively managed for the commercial production of forest products. A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. Southern plantations were generally self-sufficient settlements that relied on the forced labor of enslaved people, similar to the way that a medieval manorial estate relied upon the forced labor of serfs.[1]. In the Lowcountry of South Carolina and Georgia, the Dogtrot style house was built with a large center breezeway running through the house to mitigate the subtropical heat. Many plantations utilized a number of specialized structures that were crop-specific and only found on that type of plantation. They depended on what crops and animals were raised on the plantation. [30][31], Another secondary structure on many plantations during the height of the sharecropping-era was the plantation store or commissary. Plantation House has been fashioned with values that work across contours of … [18], The washhouse is where clothes, tablecloths, and bed-covers were cleaned and ironed. This squeezed the juice from the stalks and the cane juice would run out the bottom of the mill through a strainer to be collected into a tank. These terms were used well into the 20th century. Plantations harvested on longer rotation periods (30 years or more) can provide similar benefits to a naturally regenerated forest managed for wood production, on a similar rotation. Early records indicate that at Faunsdale Plantation the mistress of the estate, Louisa Harrison, gave regular instruction to her slaves by reading the services of the church and teaching the Episcopal catechism to their children. [14], The overseer's house was usually a modest dwelling, not far from the cabins of the enslaved workers. The mid-19th century plantation home, Longwood, is located at 140 Lower Woodville Road, Natchez, Mississippi, and is the largest standing octagonal house in the United States. Kale Caesar Salad. [33], Plantation barns can be classified by function, depending on what type of crop and livestock were raised. Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of grain, wine and olive oil for export. [43], In late 2019, after contact initiated by Color of Change, "five major websites often used for wedding planning have pledged to cut back on promoting and romanticizing weddings at former slave plantations." The process started with separating the milk into skim milk and cream. Monterey Pine and Bishop Pine as plantation trees in southern Britain. Synonyms for plantation include estate, ranch, farm, farmstead, manor, homestead, hacienda, vineyard, colony and orchard. The Martins Point Plantation House in “The Notebook” You could say the house was a “fixer upper” when we first see it in the movie (above). [17] Some plantations also had pigeonniers (dovecotes) that, in Louisiana, sometimes took the form of monumental towers set near the main house. Paper was precious, so the children often recited their lessons until they memorized them. In modern times, the low wages typically paid to plantation workers are the basis of plantation profitability in some areas. coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, opium, sisal, oil seeds, oil palms, fruits, rubber trees and forest trees. Less common are intact examples of slave housing. Savill, P. Evans, J. Auclair, D. Falk, J. [1][41], A cotton plantation normally had a cotton gin house, where the cotton gin was used to remove the seeds from raw cotton. It was then placed into a closed vessel known as a vacuum pan, where it was boiled until the sugar in the syrup was crystallized. … Two of the most elaborate extant examples in the Deep South are the Chapel of the Cross at Annandale Plantation and St. Mary's Chapel at Laurel Hill Plantation, both Episcopalian structures in Mississippi. This stage is termed 'pole stage'. Cotton production was a very labor-intensive crop to harvest, with the fibers having to be hand-picked from the bolls. There are examples in every Southern state. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations are located. COST: ($8 per person with paid garden admission, children under 6 free). [7] Bricks were most often produced onsite from sand and clay that was molded, dried, and then fired in a kiln. Popular dishes. Such colonial social and economic structures are discussed at Plantation economy. When competition becomes too intense (for. They may include unconventional types such as hybrids, and, Plantations are always young forests in ecological terms. [14], Another residential structure largely unique to plantation complexes was the garconnière or bachelors' quarters. Come experience the new Plantation House Restaurant today! Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding across wet tropical regions, and is usually developed at plantation scale. Following the death of her first husband, she had a large Carpenter Gothic church built, St. Michael's Church. 40 plantation home designs and photos including antebellum mansions, southern, Greek Revival mansions, Charleston mansions and contemporary Southern home plans. Typically slave labor on the plantation was divided into two broad categories: house servants and field hands. They were used to thresh the grain from the inedible chaff. A 1909 estimate by the Department of Agriculture concluded that the average sharecropper cleared only about $175 from his crops before settling his accounts at the plantation store. According to the FAO, about 7% of the natural closed forest being lost in the tropics is land being converted to plantations. [17], The smokehouse was utilized to preserve meat, usually pork, beef, and mutton. [3] Other scholars have attempted to define it by the number of slaves that were owned. Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example, the Forestry Commission in Britain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such as Weyerhaeuser, Rayonier and Sierra Pacific Industries in the United States, Asia Pulp & Paper in Indonesia). Sugarcane is still an important crop in Cuba. [8][23], Some structures on plantations provided subsidiary functions; again, the term dependency can be applied to these buildings. “Plantations are the sites of violence and brutality; an enslaved labor camp with a pretty house on it.” Ignorance of that fact will be much harder to justify in the future. How to use plantation in a sentence. With the collapse of the plantation economy and subsequent Southern transition from a largely agrarian to an industrial society, plantations and their building complexes became obsolete. [17], The chicken house was a building where chickens were kept. It was done by pouring the whole milk into a container and allowing the cream to naturally rise to the top. [34], Tobacco plantations were most common in certain parts of Georgia, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, and Virginia. In contrast to a naturally regenerated forest, plantations are typically grown as even-aged monocultures, primarily for timber production. It required the entire year to gather seeds, start them growing in cold frames, and then transplant the plants to the fields once the soil had warmed. Usually perceived as uncouth, ill-educated, and low-class, he had the difficult and often despised task of middleman and the often contradictory goals of fostering both productivity and the welfare of the enslaved work-force. Plantation House Two (PH 2) is a renovated traditional style farmhouse set in 2 acres of land and is literally across the road from the original Plantation House. A successful sugar plantation required a skilled retinue of hired labor and slaves. The ground is cleared, and the cycle can be restarted. The most popular of these were The Birth of a Nation (1916), based on Thomas Dixon Jr.,'s best-selling novel The Clansman (1905), and Gone with the Wind (1939), based on the best-selling novel of the same name (1936) by Margaret Mitchell. Both Plantation Houses have gas … The main page of their web site at indicates that tours are by appointment only, but another page shows daily tour times. Earlier examples rested on the ground with a dirt floor, but later examples were usually raised on piers for ventilation. Some large environmental organizations are critical of these high-yield plantations and are running an anti-plantation campaign, notably the Rainforest Action Network and Greenpeace. Another reason for the separation was to prevent the noise and smells of cooking activities from reaching the main house. [16], A variety of domestic and lesser agricultural structures surrounded the main house on all plantations. The process of turning a person into a house servant or field hand was called "seasoning." Using forest plantations to spare natural forests. As the trees grow and become dense and crowded again, the thinning process is repeated. In the Lowcountry of South Carolina, even before the American Revolution, planters typically owned hundreds of slaves. The plants used for the plantation are often genetically altered for desired traits such as growth and resistance to pests and diseases in general and specific traits, for example in the case of timber species, volumic wood production and stem straightness. [27] Some were built to exclusively serve the plantation family, but many more were built to serve the family and others in the area who shared the same faith. The overseer was largely responsible for the success or failure of an estate, making sure that quotas were met and sometimes meting out punishment for infractions by the enslaved. From its unique vantage point on Kapalua's Plantation Golf Course, the elegant dining room offers panoramic ocean views and breathtaking sunsets. In some countries, again, notably Indonesia, conversions of natural forest are made with little regard for rights of the local people. It required various gadgets to accomplish the task. When Newfoundland was colonized by England in 1610, the original colonists were called "Planters" and their fishing rooms were known as "fishing plantations". Following the slaughter in the fall or early winter, salt and sugar were applied to the meat at the beginning of the curing process, and then the meat was slowly dried and smoked in the smokehouse by a fire that did not add any heat to the smokehouse itself. Vernon but some 375 former plantation houses are museums that can be visited. Individual blocks are usually even-aged and often consist of just one or two species. Crib barns were typically built of unchinked logs, although they were sometimes covered with vertical wood siding. The environmental and social impacts of this type of plantation has caused them to become controversial. A plantation complex in the Southern United States is the built environment (or complex) that was common on agricultural plantations in the American South from the 17th into the 20th century. In many cases the planter built a church or chapel for the use of the plantation slaves, although they usually recruited a white minister to conduct the services. In Indonesia, for example, large multi-national pulp companies have harvested large areas of natural forest without regard for regeneration. What is PLANTATION? Traditionally the museum houses presented an idyllic, dignified "lost cause" vision of the antebellum South. Bristol's Hope Plantation, a 17th-century fishing plantation established at Harbour Grace, created by the Bristol Society of Merchant-Adventurers. After ginning, the cotton had to be baled before it could be warehoused and transported to market. This is especially true if native species are used. The remaining 93% of the loss is land being converted to agriculture and other uses. Sometimes the cookhouse contained two rooms, one for the actual kitchen and the other to serve as the residence for the cook. [40], Cotton plantations, the most common type of plantation in the South prior to the Civil War, were the last type of plantation to fully develop. The Family Home – Destrehan Plantation. Most early plantation architecture was constructed to mitigate the hot subtropical climate and provide natural cooling. Selected individuals grown in seed orchards are a good source for seeds to develop adequate planting material. Just as vital and arguably more important to the complex were the many structures built for the processing and storage of crops, food preparation and storage, sheltering equipment and animals, and various other domestic and agricultural purposes. Steam-powered rice pounding mills had become common by the 1830s. These were usually separate, one for each type of animal. Using styles and building concepts they had learned in the Caribbean, the French created many of the grand plantation homes around New Orleans. [26], Another structure found on some estates was a plantation chapel or church. Sedjo, R. A. St. Mary Chapel, in Natchez, dates to 1839, built in stuccoed brick with large Gothic and Tudor arch windows, hood mouldings over the doors and windows, buttresses, a crenelated roof-line, and a small Gothic spire crowning the whole. A separate chimney, required for the fires powering the steam engine, was adjacent to the pounding mill and often connected by an underground system. [9][11] Hall and parlor houses (two rooms) were also represented on the plantation landscape, offering a separate room for eating and sleeping. In the 19th century, Greek Revival architecture also became popular on some of the plantation homes of the deep south. Lumber was obtained from the forested areas of the property. Built in 1932, this beautiful rendered sandstone property is nestled in the leafy Whitecliffs area of Rye, Just 2 minute’s stroll to Rye Foreshore and 5 minutes to shops and Restaurants, Although the majority have been destroyed, the most common structures to have survived are the plantation houses.
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