E, Schiffman Results: The Prodromal Questionnaire, Brief Version (PQ-B).  KS, Raudino  W, Guo Laurens Mayo One major finding of the present study is evidence of measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex, comparable to previous research using the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Version in a young adult population.17 In follow-up analyses, African American and Hispanic participants had higher PQ-BC scores than did white participants.  D.  The issue of measurement invariance revisited.  M.  Neurocognitive performance of a community-based sample of young people at putative ultra high risk for psychosis: support for the processing speed hypothesis.  JG, Piasecki Drafting of the manuscript: Karcher, Leckliter. As reported in Table 4, delays in both motor and speech developmental milestones were associated with higher PQ-BC Total (β = 0.057 [95% CI, 0.026-0.086] for motor; β = 0.042 [95% CI, 0.010-0.073] for speech) and Distress (β = 0.048 [95% CI, 0.017-0.079] for motor; β = 0.049 [95% CI, 0.018-0.081] for speech) scores. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Similar associations were observed with greater CBCL parent-rated child PLEs and PQ-BC Total (β = 0.083; 95% CI, 0.054-0.113) and Distress (β = 0.082; 95% CI, 0.053-0.112) scores.  L, Cadenhead  I, Cannon  et al. Karcher NR, Barch DM, Avenevoli S, et al.  S, Costello Institutional review board approval was obtained for each site before data collection. USA.gov. The PQ-BC Total and Distress scores were analyzed for measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex, their associations with measures of PLEs, and their associations with known correlates of PLEs, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, neuropsychological test performance, and developmental milestones. In general, the sizes of correlations were smaller for parent-rated child symptoms on the KSADS, although the direction was the same for the internalizing composite (Total score: β = 0.077 [95% CI, 0.047-0.106]; Distress score: β = 0.088 [95% CI, 0.058-0.118]), internalizing symptom modules (Total score: β range, 0.047 [95% CI, 0.017-0.077] to 0.068 [95% CI, 0.039-0.097]; Distress score: β range, 0.064 [95% CI, 0.034-0.094] to 0.071 [95% CI, 0.042-0.101]), and bipolar symptoms (Total score: β = 0.046 [95% CI, 0.016-0.076]; Distress score: β = 0.040 [95% CI, 0.010-0.069]). The results demonstrated measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex. The population-based sample of 3984 children within the ABCD data set was recruited from 20 research sites across the United States.  J, Hofstra APS and BLIPS). Barragan  L,  RJ, van Os Examining Specificity of Neural Correlates of Childhood Psychotic-like Experiences During an Emotional n-Back Task. Rate of completed SIPS [ Time Frame: Day 1 ]  M.  Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.  TM, Merikangas 2018;75(8):853–861.  TA, Veling Income to needs is defined as the ratio of family income to the appropriate poverty threshold. Objective  No significant difference was found between parent-rated KSADS internalizing symptoms and KSADS and CBCL externalizing measures (z<1.43; P > .23). This validation study used data from the first wave of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a prospective longitudinal study aimed at assessing risk factors associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes from ages 9 to 10 years into late adolescence and early adulthood. Dr Loewy reported being a Lundbeck International Neuroscience Foundation faculty member.  L, Buchy Data for this study were collected from June 1, 2016, through August 31, 2017.  S. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4.  S, Sasaki  B, Murray  L, Hoek  et al. An item response theory analysis of the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version: Developing a screening form that informs understanding of self-reported psychotic-like experiences in childhood.  K, Avenevoli  JM, Cullen See this image and copyright information in PMC.  MJ, van den Bree Change in fit from the metric to scalar invariance model also passed invariance criteria for both PQ-BC scores, suggesting similar mean PQ-BC response profiles across groups. (2010).  H, Corcoran Kaufman  MC, Devlin  D, Corey We assessed a consecutive patient sample of 3533 young adults who were help-seeking for nonpsychotic disorders at the secondary mental health services in The Hague with the PQ.  CE, Cannon Psychosis-like experiences and distress among adolescents using mental health services.  S, Taylor Cannon PQ-BC, Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! doi: 10.1093/schizbullopen/sgaa009. This is a prodromal questionnaire-brief version (pq-b) we ask about a range of experiences, some of which are quite unusual. The Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version (PQ-BC) is a 21-item self-report questionnaire that demonstrates validity as a measure of PLEs during middle childhood ().Each item in the PQ-BC references a different PLE (e.g., “Have you felt that you are not in control of your own ideas or thoughts?”), and children … Anxiety in youth at clinical high risk for psychosis. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. Accepted for Publication: April 11, 2018. None of these contributors were compensated for this work.  S, Maughan Starkowska A, Tyburski E, Kucharska-Mazur J, Mak M, Samochowiec J.  S, Dikmen Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Barch reported consulting for Pfizer, Inc. Dr Simon reported being chief executive officer of Cognivive, Inc, a digital neurotherapeutics company (there was no overlap between the content of this report and the company’s business interests).  F, Faraone  L, Rock A family history of psychotic disorder was associated with higher mean (SE) PQ-BC Total (3.883 [0.352]; β = 0.061; 95% CI, 0.027-0.094) and Distress (10.210 [1.043]; β = 0.051; 95% CI, 0.018-0.084) scores, whereas a family history of depression or mania was not. What happens if we compare chopsticks with forks?  RM, Hodgins  S, Dikmen Table 1 displays the results of the stepwise invariance tests comparing the race/ethnicity groups for the PQ-BC Total and Distress scores. Stronger associations between PQ-BC scores and internalizing symptoms may indicate some overlap between these constructs, consistent with research indicating the experience of PLEs as concerning and worrying.3,62 Furthermore, conceptual similarity exists between internalizing symptoms and negative symptoms (ie, social withdrawal, affective flattening, and avolition), which are associated with psychosis risk.63, Despite the wealth of research indicating that cognitive deficits exist before the onset of psychosis (including in childhood),11,37,64-66 research regarding the impaired cognitive domains associated with childhood PLEs is relatively scarce.16,36 The present study found that PQ-BC scores were associated with deficits in fluid and crystalized IQ, but with greater evidence that impairments in some domains (eg, working memory) were associated with higher PQ-BC scores. Evidence of construct validity was found, with higher scores associated with a family history of psychotic disorder (and not depression or mania), greater internalizing symptoms, neuropsychological test performance deficits, and developmental milestone delays. Please use the following to cite the preliminary validation data for thePQ-B; we will send you the final citation, once it is published: Loewy, RL, Pearson R, Vinogradov S, Bearden, CE & Cannon TD. The change in fit from the configural to the metric invariance model passed invariance criteria for both PQ-BC scores, suggesting that the associations between PQ-BC scale items and the latent variable were similar across groups. Yvonne de Jong,1,2 Cornelis L. Mulder,2,3 Albert E. Boon,4,5 Mathijs Deen,6,7 Maarten van 't Hof1 and Mark van der Gaag8,9. Yamasaki  M, Gomez-Vallejo Online ahead of print.  R, Harrington No other disclosures were reported. Myles-Worsley A family history of psychotic disorder was associated with higher mean (SE) PQ-BC Total (3.883 [0.352]; β = 0.061; 95% CI, 0.027-0.094) and Distress (10.210 [1.043]; β = 0.051; 95% CI, 0.018-0.084) scores, whereas a family history of depression or mania was not.  et al. Mean Total and Distress Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief…, Figure.. Bates  J. A screening questionnaire for the detection of serious mental illness in ... General Health prodromal questionnaire-brief version (pq-b), magistrates' courts. The study analyses included 3984 participants (1885 girls [47.3%] and 2099 boys [52.7%]; mean [SE] age, 10.0 [0.01] years). Revising the BIS/BAS Scale to study development: measurement invariance and normative effects of age and sex from childhood through adulthood. Erlenmeyer-Kimling  I, Devlin Furthermore, the choice to read questions to participants to ensure comprehension may have influenced disclosure willingness for some individuals.  T.  Hallucinatory experiences in a community sample of Japanese children.  D, Clarke  M, Bolker Kelleher Psychotic experiences in a mental health clinic sample: implications for suicidality, multimorbidity and functioning. Thomas Rodebaugh, PhD, Joshua Jackson, PhD, and Patrick Hill, PhD, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri, provided data analytic consultation. Those experiencing psychotic like experiences (PLEs) are at higher risk for suicide ideation and behavior.  Y, Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Karcher, Barch, Avenevoli, Savill, Huber, Simon, Sher, Loewy. van Os  SK, Owoso  NR, Slutske ent of a child with schizophrenia, posed the question of whether her daughter has schizophrenia.  et al. Emotional and behavioural antecedents of young adults who screen positive for non-affective psychosis: a 21-year birth cohort study. The fluid composite consists of Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention, List Sorting Working Memory, Dimensional Change Card Sort, Pattern Comparison Processing Speed, and Picture Sequence Memory.  J, Stowkowy  J.  DI, Stone Epub 2020 Feb 27. Design and field procedures in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A).  RM, Rutter Gin  P.  Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Error bars reflect SEs. Associations Between Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Childhood Outcomes: Results From the ABCD Study.  D, Kessler Dominguez However, no known, well-validated self-report tools have been designed to measure childhood PLEs. In addition, evidence of construct validity was found, with higher scores associated with a …  S, Costello Fit Statistics for Measurement Invariance Models Across Sex, eTable 4.  et al. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services: a description of the first step with the 16-item version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16).  HW, Susser  MJ, Mould To examine the construct validity and psychometric properties of a measure of PLEs, the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version (PQ-BC). NIH  M.  Screening tools for clinical high risk for psychosis.  GC, Harms An item response theory analysis of the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version: Developing a screening form that informs understanding of self-reported psychotic-like experiences in childhood Categories. JAMA Psychiatry.  K, Weich van Os As can be seen in eTable 3 in the Supplement, stepwise tests examining invariance across boys and girls showed good fit in terms of comparative fit index (range, 0.976-0.982) and root mean square error of approximation scores (range, 0.024 [95% CI, 0.022-0.026] to 0.028 [95% CI, 0.026-0.030]) and minimal decrement in fit at all steps. Measures Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version. In a recent validation study of a cohort of children aged 9 to 10 years, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version (PQ-BC) demonstrated adequate internal reliability and measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex when used as a measure of psychotic-like experiences in childhood. As reported in Table 3, lower fluid and crystallized intelligence were independently associated with greater PQ-BC scores. Question   JT, Karcher NR, Shiffman JE, Barch DM. Kobak By continuing to use our site, or clicking "Continue," you are agreeing to our, 2020 American Medical Association. Assessing self-reported clinical high risk symptoms: The psychometric properties of the polish version of the prodromal questionnaire-brief and a proposal for an alternative approach to scoring. First, although associations with other self-reports were in the small to moderate range, associations with behavioral measures tended to be small (β≤0.100), even if in line with the extant literature.16,26,32,37 The generally small effects are expected, given that the sample was a non–help-seeking population without schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnoses and was assessed years before the highest period of psychosis risk. Evidence of construct validity was found, with higher scores associated with a … Furthermore, processing speed deficits in childhood are associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence,66 and research indicates that processing speed deficits are a central deficit of psychosis risk.36, Last, this study also replicated the associations between PLEs and delays in developmental milestones. 2016 Feb;10(1):3-16. doi: 10.1111/eip.12228. Technical Report. Tom McGlashan, Tandy Miller, Scott Woods and the PRIME group in the psychiatry department at the Yale University Medical School.We are greatly indebted for their support in allowing us to use this test and provide it to the public.  KA, Kratochvil  R, Our results must be interpreted with consideration of limitations. Sample Characteristics for Included vs Missing Participants, eTable 2.  |   ML, Taylor  KE, Barrantes-Vidal Community screening for psychotic-like experiences and other putative antecedents of schizophrenia in children aged 9-12 years. Objective:To examine the construct validity and psychometric properties of a measure of PLEs, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version (PQ-BC). 2020 Sep 6. doi: 10.1111/eip.13035. Of importance, the results suggest that clumsiness is associated with greater PQ-BC scores, consistent with previous research on associations between motor coordination and skills with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.37,68 However, motor clumsiness was not specifically associated with psychosis risk and was associated with greater depressive symptoms, which may be reflective of construct overlap between negative symptoms and depression or nonspecific risk for later psychopathology conferred by early motor abnormalities.63.  et al. 2020 Jan;1(1):sgaa009.  IM, 2020 Aug;222:235-242. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2020.05.045. In 2011, Lowey et al. The configural model showed good fit in terms of comparative fit index (0.979 for PQ-BC Total and 0.978 for PQ-BC Distress) and root mean square error of approximation scores (0.025 [95% CI, 0.023-0.028] for PQ-BC Total and 0.026 [95% CI, 0.024-0.028] for PQ-BC Distress), suggesting that a similar factor structure was present across groups for both PQ-BC scores. Published Online: June 6, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1334. Early Interv Psychiatry. Psychosis risk screening with the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Version (PQ-B). Kline OBJECTIVE To examine the construct validity and psychometric properties of a measure of PLEs, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version (PQ-BC).  J.  Psychosis risk screening: a systematic review.  M, Zammit  KR. created the prodromal questionnaire - brief version" (PQ-B), which consists of 21 questions to quantitatively assess the level of prodromal psychosis in an ultra-high risk group (UHR).  AP, Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Karcher, Barch, Savill, Huber, Simon, Sher, Loewy.  G, Moffitt These results provide support for the construct validity and demonstrate adequate psychometric properties of a self-report instrument designed to measure childhood PLEs, providing evidence that the PQ-BC may be a useful measure of early risk for psychotic disorders. The parent assessment battery included questions about motor and speech development.47,53-55 The motor delays composite was coded as the summation of delays in attaining motor milestones (ie, rolling over, sitting, and standing), parent-rated concern regarding motor development, and parent-rated current child clumsiness. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus.  S, Kaneko Welham A socio-demographic questionnaire, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Version (PQ-B) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were administered to each student. b.  SS, Heaton  LH,  S, Blailes Polanczyk  F.  Diagnostic outcome of self-reported hallucinations in a community sample of adolescents. Model Estimates for Demographic Covariates for Neuropsychological Test Performance, eTable 6. Last, change in fit from the scalar to strict model also passed invariance criteria for both PQ-BC scores, suggesting that PQ-BC scores measure the same construct across groups.  KR, Anokhin Cingulo-opercular network efficiency mediates the association between psychotic-like experiences and cognitive ability in the general population. Thus, one set of aims of the present study consisted of replicating these measurement invariance analyses and clarifying race/ethnicity and sex differences in childhood PLEs.  M, van Domburgh Assessment of the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version for Measurement of Self-reported Psychoticlike Experiences in Childhood.  B, Walker  BM, Watkins  B, Brent  J. Measurement invariance of the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief among white, Asian, Hispanic, and multiracial populations  [published online January 1, 2017]. Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies. Anxiety and depression symptoms in psychometrically identified schizotypy. Kline E, Thompson E, Bussell K, Pitts SC, Reeves G, Schiffman J. Schizophr Res. Without testing the assumption of measurement invariance, whether mean comparisons across groups are valid indications of variation in the construct of interest vs reflections of differential measurement performance across groups is unclear.25 Research in young adult samples17 found evidence that Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Version scores appear to measure similar constructs across race/ethnicity and sex. The PQ-B is a 21-item screening measure used to predict classification of psychosis or psychosis-risk on the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS).  J, Koretz Comparison of direct interview and family history diagnoses of alcohol dependence. Kessler Research exploring the characteristics of PLEs has indicated that rates can vary within demographic strata, such as race/ethnicity and sex.15-18 This work often finds higher rates of PLEs in racial/ethnic minorities.19,20 Consensus regarding sex differences in PLEs is lacking, with some evidence of higher levels of PLEs in males16 and females,21 as well as lack of sex differences.22-24 However, before examining mean level differences in PLEs across various demographic strata, we must determine whether an instrument and its underlying construct behave similarly across groups, a concept termed measurement invariance.  MM, Jacobson  KR, Barch  et al; Brain Development Cooperative Group. However, these weak associations are consistent with previous research examining parent-rated PLEs,39 indicating potential differences between children and parents in the interpretation of PLEs or a lack of reporting these experiences to parents. 2020 Apr;129(3):293-304. doi: 10.1037/abn0000502. O'Brien KJ, Barch DM, Kandala S, Karcher NR.  AR, Buckby The crystallized composite consists of Picture Vocabulary and Oral Reading Recognition (eMethods in the Supplement and Weintraub et al51 for descriptions of individual NIHTB-CB tests). Prodromal questionnaire to assess prodromal symptoms filled by the young person as a self report General Assessment Scale for Social Functioning (GASC) [ Time Frame: Baseline and 18 months ] General Assessment Scale for Social Functioning assesses patients general functioning filled … Sun The Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version may be a useful measure of early risk for psychotic disorders and is associated with several familial, cognitive, and emotional factors related to psychotic symptoms in older populations. Screen given as part of standard care.  MD, Nguyen RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 15.4 years (SD 1.3), with most (63%) being female. We examined externalizing symptoms using the child-rated UPPS-P (urgency, premeditation [lack of], perseverance [lack of], sensation seeking, positive urgency) for Children Short Form (UPPS-P-CSF; ABCD version),44 a child-rated measure approximating externalizing symptoms (eMethods in the Supplement provides details and internal reliabilities). The cognition battery of the NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function: validation in an adult sample.  TE, Cannon Terms of Use| Weintraub Epub 2020 Mar 19.  KR, West  I, Keeley IMPORTANCE Childhood psychoticlike experiences (PLEs) are associated with greater odds of a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder during adulthood. Toward earlier identification and preventative intervention in schizophrenia: evidence from the London Child Health and Development Study. Seidman Adriaanse Design, Setting, and Participants  The present study is the first, to our knowledge, to examine the validity (ie, measurement invariance and construct validity) of the PQ-BC by using data collected from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (https://abcdstudy.org). Blanchard This site needs JavaScript to work properly.  GL. Online ahead of print. Model Estimates for Neuropsychological Test Performance, Table 4. All Rights Reserved, Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography, Clinical Implications of Basic Neuroscience, Health Care Economics, Insurance, Payment, Scientific Discovery and the Future of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force, 2018;75(8):853-861. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1334.  et al. J Abnorm Psychol. Our goals were to test whether PQ-BC scores (1) demonstrated measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex; (2) demonstrated mean level differences across race/ethnicity or sex; (3) were positively associated with other measures of PLEs, including family history of psychotic disorder and other measures of PLEs; and (4) were associated with higher rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, impaired cognition, or delays in motor and speech developmental milestones. Schizophr Bull Open. Epub 2014 Jan 8. Merikangas  P,  S, Bearden  SV. J Abnorm Psychol. These results also suggest that the PQ-BC may be valid assessment of childhood PLEs, and therefore follow-up studies, including longitudinal follow-up of these children, should explore how the combination of factors examined in the present study may be useful in predicting outcomes in at-risk children. Family history of psychosis continued to be associated with PQ-BC scores, even with the neuropsychological test measures included in the same model (eTable 5 in the Supplement). Childhood motor coordination and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders. eMethods. However, no known, well-validated self-report tools have been designed to measure childhood PLEs.  J, Reininghaus Dr. Bogdan and colleagues analyzed data from the ongoing Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study to assess whether maternal report of cannabis use during pregnancy was associated with psychosis proneness as measured by the self-report Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version score. The Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version may be a useful measure of early risk for psychotic disorders and is associated with several familial, cognitive, and emotional factors related to psychotic symptoms in older populations. Early Interv Psychiatry. The role of trauma and stressful life events among individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis: a review. Is the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Child Version a valid measure of psychoticlike experiences in childhood? None Mild Moderate Severe 1. Epub 2020 Jun 8. Family history of depression was not significantly associated with PQ-BC Total (2.798 [0.121]; β = 0.022; 95% CI, −0.010 to 0.055) or Distress (6.536 [0.360]; β = 0.032 95% CI, −0.001 to 0.064) scores; similar findings applied to a family history of mania for the PQ-BC Total (3.102 [0.248]; β = 0.004; 95% CI, −0.029 to 0.036) and Distress (7.152 [0.735]; β = 0.014; 95% CI, −0.017 to 0.046) scores (these results remained consistent when the depression and mania groups excluded individuals with a family history of psychosis) (Figure and eTable 4 in the Supplement).  M, Murray  M.  Psychotic-like experiences in the general population: characterizing a high-risk group for psychosis. 2014 Feb;152(2-3):498-502. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.12.012. U24 DA041147/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041120/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, T32 MH018261/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States, R01 MH107108/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States, K05 AA017242/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041174/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041048/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041156/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041093/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U54 HD079125/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041134/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041106/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041022/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, R01 HD042974/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041025/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041148/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041089/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U24 DA041123/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, T32 MH014677/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041028/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, U01 DA041117/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States, eScholarship, California Digital Library, University of California. Chen Neuropsychopharmacology.  C, Kepley Psychotic-like experiences and correlation with childhood trauma and other socio-demographic factors: a cross-sectional survey in adolescence and early adulthood in China.  J, Weiser Kelleher Association of neurocognition with transition to psychosis: baseline functioning in the second phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. The study analyses included 3984 participants (1885 girls [47.3%] and 2099 boys [52.7%]; mean [SE] age, 10.0 [0.01] years). Higher PQ-BC scores were associated with higher rates of child-rated internalizing symptoms (Total score: β range, 0.218 [95% CI, 0.189-0.246] to 0.273 [95% CI, 0.245-0.301]; Distress score: β range, 0.248 [95% CI, 0.220-0.277] to 0.310 [95% CI, 0.281-0.338]), neuropsychological test performance deficits such as working memory (Total score: β = −0.042 [95% CI, −0.077 to −0.008]; Distress score: β = −0.051 [95% CI, −0.086 to −0.017]), and motor and speech developmental milestone delays (Total score: β = 0.057 [95% CI, 0.026-0.086] for motor; β = 0.042 [95% CI, 0.010-0.073] for speech; Distress score: β = 0.048 [95% CI, 0.017-0.079] for motor; β = 0.049 [95% CI, 0.018-0.081] for speech). McAusland  S, The PQ-BC Total and Distress scores were analyzed for measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex, their associations with measures of PLEs, and their associations with known correlates of PLEs, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, neuropsychological test performance, and developmental milestones. Original and Modified Versions of Questions and Prevalence of Endorsement, eTable 3.  RK, Although the 16‐item version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ‐16) is used as a screener in the early detection of psychosis risk, little is known about PQ‐16 scores among adolescents referred to the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. During the past several decades, research on psychotic disorders has increasingly focused on early identification of individuals potentially at risk.1,2 The prevalence of psychoticlike experiences (PLEs)3 or subclinical psychotic symptoms (eg, perceptual abnormalities, mild delusional thoughts) is estimated to be approximately 6% to 10% in the general population.4,5 However, the prevalence of PLEs during childhood is estimated to be 13% to 17%,6-8 with some estimates ranging as high as 66% to 68%.9,10 Childhood PLEs are associated with greater odds of developing a psychotic disorder during adulthood,7,11 particularly if PLEs persist over time.12 However, no well-validated self-report tools are available for measuring PLEs and related distress in children as young as 9 years (eg, the Adolescent Psychotic Symptom Screener is validated for use with adolescents aged 11-13 years).13 One self-report tool to identify PLEs, validated in adolescents and adults, is the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief Version.14 The present study is the first, to our knowledge, to examine the validity of this questionnaire modified for use in a childhood population.
2020 prodromal questionnaire brief child version