Example of use case with Alternative Scenarios. and H (2010) presented an empirical study that compares the understanding of the requirements model expressed in two requirements modeling methods (Use Cases and Tropos). its eﬁectiveness (measured in precision and recall) in identifying key concepts in use cases - such as Actors, action verbs, etc. Template for a use case textual description: Example of a use case textual description, using the above template: The Create Album feature allows the user of the software to create a new album in. Besides that, this structure was selected as preferred by only 3% of the volunteers according to the post-experiment questionnaire (considering only the 134 valid executions with the final question correct). (2006), named Research Type. The use case description is a narrative document that describes, in general terms, the required functionality of the use case. (2010) classified different SPL requirements engineering approaches in terms of tool support, RE activities, and adoption strategies. In this paper, we propose an abstract syntax for textual use case description as a meta-model extension of the UML Speci cation. c The general part of the use case templates is summary, actor, requirements, flow, levels, and stakeholder. Ensure that the summary of the use case defines the context of the use case properly. The experiment was conducted through of the following activities (see Fig. However, we performed the analysis of the collected data by splitting the groups according to their academic background in order to discover additional behavior related to their experience in software development. Sig.”). Furthermore, we do not excluded duplicate papers in this step. When written properly, it will identify potential errors in the system before designed. For this mapping study, we defined just one inclusion criterion: (IC1) the study presents a template for textual use cases description of an SPL. Finally, the Advice Use Case structure is present in two templates (Anthonysamy and Somé 2008; Bonifácio and Borba 2009). 1 INTRODUCTION The Uni ed Modeling Language (UML) de nes a use case as \the speci cation of a … Transformations are described in transfor-mation … A use case specification provides details for a use case in a textual format . https://doi.org/10.1186/s40411-015-0020-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40411-015-0020-3, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Zhou et al. Requir Eng J 19: 355–376. Simply put, a use case is a description of all the ways an end-user wants to “use” a system. J Electronic Testing 29: 9–24. - 126.96.36.199. In application engineering, the requirements for individual products of the SPL are defined by reusing the domain requirements. Use Case Template A. Cockburn Page -1- Humans and Technology HaT TR96.03a (98.10.26) Edmon Begoli, Lucent Technologies CSCI 6448 University of Colorado – CATECS Homework 3 Submission Notes on homework: Dr. Anderson, Please not that I used Use Case templates provided by Alistair Cockburn on his use cases web site: www.usecases.org. Requir Eng J 19: 27–43. Keep in mind that use cases are just textual descriptions, and their main purpose is to document the behavior of a system in a clear, concise, and understandable way. Northrop, LM, Clements PC (2007) A Framework for Software Product Line Practice, Version 5.0. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/productlines/frame_report/. 2007; Oliveira et al. (Niu and Easterbrook 2008; Oliveira et al. However, when we compared with the first tag-based template (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003), the newest proposals (Choi et al. 2008): i) Mapping studies generally have broader research questions driving them and often ask multiple research questions; ii) The search terms for mapping studies will be less highly focused than for systematic reviews and are likely to return a very large number of studies; and iii) SR aims at establishing the state of evidence while the main focus of an SM is on classification and identification of publication fora. For this, the participants registered the initial and final time for each comprehension task. Make sure you store use cases so that they are easily found, edited, and used. A requirement is a contract or promise that the use case will perform an action or … We also found this template in the work of Nakanishi et al. This work focuses on the assessment of different textual use case templates and their impact on the comprehension of the SPL use cases. provides a use case template which is exhaustive example of an textual description . 2010). In the literature, there have been different proposals for templates for textual use case descriptions of Software Product Lines, such as (Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Gomaa 2004; Oliveira et al. There are specific branches of business use case such as business analyst use case, business specification, business processes and more. With regard to the template structures evaluated in this experiment, the Step Identifier structure, where the variability is described in the step identifiers of the use case through some conventions (e.g. Santos, I.S., Andrade, R.M. This questionnaire was applied to characterize all the participants as to their previous knowledge in the treatments of the study. Subjects who selected the Step Identifier structure as the best structure, for example, reported that it has a simple description and an objective, clean, organized, and compact structure. However, in contrast to their work, we do not focus on use cases diagrams. Master’s thesis, Federal University of Pernambuco. Google Scholar. Ismayle S Santos. Use Case Identification. Use case template; Use-case field Description; Use case name: An active verb phrase that describes a particular task. The narrative consists of three basic elements: Triggering event; Main flow of events; … The accuracy was chosen as the measure of comprehension because we believe that the volunteers could only answer the questions of the comprehension test correctly if they understand the SPL use cases being evaluated. This is the only work found that, like the experiment described in this paper, dealt with the comprehensibility of a use cases model in the SPL paradigm. In the meantime, it is possible to find empirical work with the templates identified in this SM, such as the ones from Alferez et al. It reminds people of what is going on in the use case. These authors first report the benefits of the separation of concerns by comparing their approach with other techniques for handling scenario variability management (Bonifácio et al. The name should start with a strong verb. Most of these are organization speci c. Examples of published templates include , , , ,  and . (2013) was classified as Validation Research, because it presents hypotheses and statistical tests. However, we agree with Ferrari et al. Furthermore, this type of use case samples, are used as … When writing a formal use case, you describe the use case with a more structured format for the information. Table 3 presents the papers found at Step 03 and the included papers based on the EC4. This is really important. Fantechi, A, Gnesi S, Lami G, Nesti E (2004) A methodology for the derivation and verification of use cases for product lines In: Proceedings of the International Software Product Line Conference.. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. Then, in spite of the fact that this study has a specific focus (textual use case templates) we chose the Systematic Mapping approach because the main goal of this study is to identify and classify the different SPL use case templates. This article also demonstrates a convention for organizing a use case’s steps based on the established approach of writing use case steps nonredundantly by using flows of different kinds. 2000). Then, the use of aspect-oriented use cases modelling has good benefits when we have homogeneous crosscutting features and several variants for a scenario (Bonifácio and Borba 2009; Bonifácio et al. In Visual Paradigm, you can make use of the sub-diagram feature to describe the interaction between user and system within a use case by creating a sub-sequence diagram under a use case.You can also describe the use case scenario using the Flow of Events editor. A wrong answer in this question signaled a serious error in the use of the templates. and has six keywords (Wieringa et al. Then, from the templates of Gallina and Guelfi (2007), and Bragança and Machado (2005) we chose the last one, because it has questions associated with the variations points and we wanted to verify their impact on the SPL use cases’ compressibility. [Vo], [ALT]) to indicate the variation points within the use cases. related with the variabilities aiming to guide the instantiation of the product use cases. The main reasons for a study which contains a use case template for SPL has not been selected are: i) the publisher sources of the study are not indexed by the databases used in this mapping; ii) the study was not hit by the search string; and iii) the study was written up in a language other than English. The second nugget is his “striped trousers” explanation of use case scenarios, which are sequences of use case steps that represent different paths through a use case in pursuit of the use case’s goal. We also identified some studies addressing the assessment of the understanding of the requirements provided by the use cases in software development (Dahan et al. 2 Experimental study As mentioned before, we have not found a template suitable for use case des-cription of CASPL. (2013), Bonifacio and Borba (2009), and Anthonysamy and Somé (2008), where the variability type is specified by the feature model. Both present a use case example with the template proposed by Bertolino and Gnesi (2003). In the Choi et al. (2014) present a case study with their approach. Subject area: A use role or other grouping mechanism that can be used to group use cases. With respect to the Specific Section structure, some volunteers said that this structure eased the identification of alternative and optional features by presenting all the variations described at the end of the use case. alternative steps with cardinality). It is helping to make a diagram process included in the use case template. With regards to the use cases used in the experiment, we selected the following: i) Keep Velocity (John and Muthig 2002); ii) Cook Food (Gomaa 2004); iii) Withdraw Money (Erikssona et al. The students were associated to four universities in Brazil. We conclude that each characteristic of the existing templates has an impact on the SPL use case understanding and this should be taken into account when choosing one. suggest that the features names should be clearly specified in the use case through the element named “Associated feature” and that the variations can be related to alternative scenarios within the use case. (2010) presented a Systematic Review of Requirements Engineering (RE) within Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE). Thus, from the four steps of the study selection process, 12 studies were considered relevant and thus make up the final set of included papers. In this approach, the use cases model is composed of use cases and aspectual use cases. 2010; Neiva 2009). The article you are reading now uses a generic use case specification template that combines the most common elements from the available templates. a Gallina, B, Guelfi N (2007) A template for requirement elicitation of dependable product lines In: Proceedings of the 13th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, REFSQ’07, 63–77.. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. This is also known as a use case brief. For this purpose, there are several use case templates available in the literature to describe the functional requirements of an SPL. It will serve as a master inventory to help writ effective use cases for the requirements phase of the project. The use case specification will be based on the activity diagram. Due to this fact, there are only 134 executions able to be evaluated, since 58 executions were not approved. Finally, the third phase, Results, is responsible for reporting the study outcomes based on a classification scheme. 2000) to assess if it is reasonable to assume that both data sets come from a normal population. Finally, the subjects were asked to answer a post-experiment questionnaire, containing, among other things, the most useful structure from their point of view. 2008), which describes the variability type with the Orthogonal Variability Model; and iii) the templates of Oliveira et al. The most important model elements are: Use Cases, Actors; and the relationships between them. The template of Oliveira et al. Therefore, the results of the systematic mapping study could be interesting to researchers and practitioners who would like to propose a new SPL use case template or to investigate which template is better. Learn with use case examples, diagram, and template. 1st edn. Use Case testing is a functional Black Box testing technique. H 2014). Similar to the template of Bertolino and Gnesi (2003), Kamsties et al. Gallina and Guelfi (2007) propose a Use Case Elicitation Template (UCET) that provides special fields to collect information concerning variabilities: a) selection category, which specifies whether the use case is mandatory, optional or alternative; b) a description of variation points, and c) fault variation description, used to describe the faults strongly related to the variation points. Kuloor and Eberlein (2002) described and compared requirements engineering techniques used in existing SPL practices. This question presented above is related to the use case “Withdraw Money” shown in Fig. This was also the preferred structure according to the results of the post-experiment questionnaire. For this, the authors have described the four use cases in each template selected for the experiment. 2012; Blanes and Insfrãn 2012; Kuloor and Eberlein 2002). As shown in Table 4, the oldest template found by the mapping is dated 2003 and the newest template is dated 2013. 2008; Jirapanthong 2009). Therefore, the template used for textual use cases in the SPL paradigm should allow the specification of “small variations” (Gomaa 2004) (fine-grained variation), which can affect just one or two lines in the use case description. You can use this example diagram to draw similar use cases in Creately. Regarding the study language, the choice of the English language is justified to make this mapping study replicable and feasible. Benavides, D, Segura S, Ruiz-Cortés A (2010) Automated analysis of feature models 20 years later: A literature review. Business Analysis. Download use case template in Microsoft Word format. In regards to the twelve included papers, we realized that Validation and Evaluation Research are weakly addressed, because we found only one paper (9%) in the Evaluation Research category and two papers (18%) in the Validation Research category. Use Case Pre-conditions and Post-Conditions Each use case should represent a discrete unit of work. The requirements engineering process of an SPL should include strategic and effective techniques for analyzing domains, finding similarities and variabilities, and dealing with a community of stakeholders probably larger than those for single-system requirements elicitation (Cheng and Atlee 2007; Northrop and Clements 2007). the templates of Bertolino et al. Then, Gomaa (2004) proposed that these variations should be described at the end of the SPL use cases. 1, 207–214.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. Download All Use case template and use case … Therefore, approaches to describe variability based on include/extend relationships (e.g. Since one limitation of the conducted controlled experiment was the size of the use case descriptions, which has just two or three variations, we believe that an interesting future work is the replication of this experiment with more complex use cases. In: Käkölä T Duenas JC (eds)Software Product Lines Research Issues in Engineering and Management.. Springer, Brazil. This template was found in 8 papers from the Step 03 (see Table 3). Therefore, based on the mapping study results, we identify the following directions for future research: (i) Controlled experiments to compare the SPL use case templates; (ii) Application of the templates with real SPL, since most of the papers found propose a use case template only with examples from an academic or fictitious SPL; (iii) Development of other support tools, because just a few of the found works present a support tool; and (iv) Proposal of an SPL use case template to support different variability types and even more complex variations (e.g. Nakanishi, T, Fujita M, Yamazaki S, Yamashita N, Ashihara S (2007) Tailoring the domain engineering process of the plus method In: Proceedings of the 14th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, 486–493.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. Use case analysis usually starts by drawing use case diagrams. Each use case should provide some observable and valuable result to the actors or other stakeholders of the system. 2008; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Jirapanthong 2009; Kamsties et al. The participants were also monitored through log-sheets of their daily performances and they were allowed to use self-reporting. UML is the modeling toolkit that you can use to build your diagrams. (1990). m >>Click here to download the use case template<<. UML-textual description of a use case-Importance Youcef Benabderrezak Oct 26 ・1 min read. Nine undergraduate students had never studied SPL. In Section 5, we describe the controlled experiment conducted with the SPL use case templates. The methodology adopted to conduct the systematic mapping and results are presented in Section 4. Use case descriptions. All of them assess the comprehensibility provided by a use cases model. The linking of advice use cases with affected base use cases is based on syntactical matching of joinpoints and pointcut expressions. Within this category, six studies (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003; Bragança and Machado 2005; Choi et al. However, to the best of our knowledge, no efforts have been made to collect and summarize these existing templates and no empirical evaluation of the use cases’ comprehensibility provided by these templates has been addressed yet. The purpose of the Use Case is to tie the business needs of the system to the design parameters of the system to ensure that the completed system achieves the goals established by the business requirements. Business Use Case Templates – A business use case is one of the widely used type of use case. Bertolino, A, Fantechi A, Gnesi S, Lami G (2006). Use case diagrams are usually referred to as behavior diagrams used to describe a set of actions that some system or systems should or can perform in collaboration with one or more external users of the system . J Softw Eng Res Dev 3, 5 (2015). We also looked for work that compares requirements engineering approaches for SPL, and, addressing this issue, we found four studies (Alferez et al. An interesting feature of this template is the presence of questions related to the variation points that are used to guide the instantiation of the product use cases. These characteristics make it easy and intuitive to identify whether the use case steps were mandatory, optional, or alternative. Fant, JS, Gomaa H, Pettit RG (2013) A pattern-based modeling approach for software product line engineering In: Proceedings of the 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 4985–4994.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA.
2020 use case textual description template