the design, caliber, charge, bolt length, bolt tip, and bolt velocity are: appropriate for the type of animal, as per the manufacturer's directions and/or specifications, effective for the licence holder's intended use, there are a sufficient number of equipment so they can be rotated to prevent overheating, and can be available as a backup stunning method, equipment is used, cleaned, and maintained, and stored as per the manufacturer's recommendations, charge cartridges are stored in a clean dry area and have not aged excessively, bolt velocity is checked by a velocity checker, or similar means as stated in the manufacturer's directions, bolt(s) retract completely, as designed, after each use, the procedure including test equipment and frequency for testing the stunning equipment, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of birds or employee shift changes. How to Download slideshare ppts which are disabled by the author, Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell), No public clipboards found for this slide, Methods of slaughtering, processing & postmortem changes and ageing of meat, Teacher at Calicut University, Thenhipalem, Malapuram, Calicut University, Thenhipalem, Malapuram, Student at Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupathi. Some reasons for this include higher resistance from an individual bird or the bird's incorrect positioning when presented to the source of electricity. 3. Anal region: Clear skin carefully from around anus avoiding puncturing it … For poultry, there is the advantage that the birds can be stunned in the transport containers if they are specially designed modules for this purpose and therefore, the birds are minimally handled while still conscious. For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply: The licence holder's PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: CFIA Regulatory requirements for humane treatment of food animals during slaughtering activities under the Safe Food for Canadians: Controlled atmospheric stunning (CAS) references: General references for stunning and slaughter of food animals: References for physiology of stunning and signs of consciousness/unconsciousness: Intervalle entre l'étourdissement et la saignée, Captive bolt stunning of poultry or rabbits, Electrical stunning methods for mammalian food animals, Animal welfare PCP for gas stunning for pigs, Decapitation of poultry as a deviation procedure for missed stuns in poultry, Monitoring for signs of consciousness (sensibility) and unconsciousness (insensibility) in food animals after stunning, Cutting and bleeding methods for conventional slaughter, Cutting/bleeding of red meat species including ratites, Humane stunning and slaughter of food animals and post-cut management, Additional PCP Content for food animal welfare, Humane treatment of food animals at the slaughter establishment, Guidelines for Stunning Techniques of Mammalian Food Animals, Guidelines for the humane care and handling of food animals at slaughter, Guidelines for animal welfare Preventive Control Plans and self-audits for the slaughter of food animals, Guidelines for stunning techniques for avian food animals, including ratites, Low atmospheric pressure system for stunning broiler chickens, A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure, Official Journal of the European Union - PDF (1,421 kb), A critical review of electrical water-bath stun systems for poultry slaughter and recent developments in alternative technologies, Optimization of stunning electrical parameters to improve animal welfare in a poultry slaughterhouse, Welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing the main commercial species of animals, Report on good and adverse practices - Animal welfare concerns in relation to slaughter practices from the viewpoint of veterinary sciences, Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: A Systematic Approach to Animal Welfare, Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter, Part I, Neurobiological mechanisms underlying stunning and killing, Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter, Part II, Evaluation methods, Time to Loss of Consciousness and Its Relation to Behavior in Slaughter Pigs during Stunning with 80 or 95% Carbon Dioxide, Assessing unconsciousness in livestock at slaughter - PDF (8,635 kb), How to Determine Insensibility (Unconsciousness) in Cattle, Sheep and Pigs, tension in the nose , upper lip and curled tongue, The animal should remain in a state of unconsciousness that extends beyond the time required to use a neck cut to bleed the animal that results in death, The stunning method should result in minimal signs of distress in the animal before the loss of consciousness, the outcome of mechanical stunning produces a pathological state of the brain incompatible with consciousness and sensibility until the animal can be bled out, mechanical stunning requires proper targeting to achieve this outcome, the best landmark for the targeted area is a midline frontal approach, the projectile, when used, should be targeted towards the animal's brainstem for most consistent stunning results. Meat processing plants (MPPs) produce large amounts of slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) because of the slaughtering process and cleaning of facilities. evaluate various slaughtering methods with respect to stress on the fish and the quality of the flesh. Slaughter houses have no such ethical basis for their methods. Presented by: Pre-stun shock occurs when any part of a bird receives an electric shock before it enters the waterbath or in other cases, before it is effectively stunned. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The licence holder's written PCP should include: written documentation that the equipment complies with the federal Firearms Act and all applicable provincial and local legislation and that firearms are well maintained as per manufacturer's recommendations, can be used as the primary method of stunning birds or rabbits in low volume establishments because of the slower line speeds, requires equipment appropriate for the species. a protocol to monitor the behaviour of animals during the induction of unconsciousness so that corrective actions can be implemented for observable problems: such as animals piling up or falling on top of each, vocalizing or attempting to escape, the measures to ensure that exposure time and gas concentration are sufficient to ensure animals do not regain consciousness before death by bleeding, the measures to ensure sufficient line space to shackle and bleed stunned animals during line stoppages, corrective action procedures to ensure humane stunning occurs during line stoppages, corrective action procedures to ensure that there is well maintained back-up stunning equipment available at all times. the protocol for level of salinity used and its adjustment including: manufacturers recommended procedures to enhance the salinity of water to improve electrical conductivity, as required, correct flow of the brine to avoid preshock from the brine flowing out the entrance to the bath, maintenance and cleaning protocol of shackles for electric contact to prevent poor electrical conductivity, the protocol for staff for stopping the line in the stunning and bleeding areas in the event of a problem or communicating problems so that corrective action procedures can be immediately taken, the system used should have meters or the proper software if computerized that display or record the amperage (ammeter) and/or volts (voltmeter), frequency and duration of the stun, meters (voltmeters and ammeters) are best installed where clearly visible to staff operating the electrical water bath or plate stunning systems and to any person who monitors, verifies, inspects or audits the system, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift, before each new lot of birds or employee shift changes. The most notable of these requirements is the need to have an animal completely sedated and insensible to pain. Electrical stunning includes hand-held and automated electrical stunning equipment. This guide is intended to instruct smallholders in the most humane methods of slaughtering poultry. And because fewer animals were injured, fewer carcasses were bruised – improving meat quality. Removal of hair —> Scald, dehair, shave, singe, depilate. Methods of slaughter used today by Non-Muslims. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Swine 1. Staff morale improved too. It could be penetrating or non-penetrating (percussion stunning). Pre-stun shocks should be monitored and prevented since it is painful for the birds and the licence holder should take the necessary steps to prevent it, including the determination of the root cause. Equipment that is designed for a single point contact with the head or neck (for example, an electric knife) may not produce an effective stun; there is the risk that it will only immobilize (paralyze) the bird without inducing unconsciousness. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "poultry slaughtering" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. Humane Methods of Slaughter Act Originally passed in 1958, the law that is enforced today by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was passed as the Humane Slaughter Act of 1978. This ismandatory in the best-known of ritualistic slaughters, the Halal (Islamic),the Kosher (Jewish) and the Jhakta (Sikh) methods. Removal of skin —> Manual with knives (most locker plants) or mechanical with hide pullers (Wolverine and Jimmy Dean most common). out rates and duration, amount of blood retained, methods to determine effective slaughtering including indicators of unconsciousness, signs of recovery, sets of recommendations and guidelines) 2 3. Review research on the effect of slaughter methods on carcass and meat quality, including objective assessment criteria (e.g. The type of stunning method used to immobilize animals during the slaughter process can affect meat quality either through inducing short-term pre-slaughter stress or it can affect blood removal upon exsanguination. PRESENTATION A gun fires a metal bolt into the brain of the animal causing the animal to lose consciousness immediately. 85-765; 7 U.S.C. The licence holder's written animal welfare PCP for the captive bolt stunning equipment should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: equipment operators are trained and competent to use the equipment and are able to monitor the signs of an effective stun for each animal. Stunning methods may be irreversible which means the animal will not regain consciousness although the heart may still be beating. An electrical current is passed through the animal's brain via a large pair of tongs, causing temporary loss of consciousness. It is the shooting, by a gun or pistol in the forehead (mechanical method) by a blank cartridge or compressed air. 25, 44). A preliminary series of experiments was performed to assess specifically the impact of each technique on animalwelfare aspects,while thesecond seriesfocused on the quality of the flesh obtained. It's all about expediency for the most part. This opinion on the killing of rabbits for human consumption (‘slaughtering’) responds to two mandates: one from the European Parliament (EP) and the other from the European Commission. Some signs are useful indicators of both consciousness and unconsciousness, for example: Rhythmic breathing is a useful sign of unconsciousness when absent after electrical and mechanical stunning methods and a useful sign of consciousness or return to consciousness when present, assessing consciousness/sensibility in poultry can present with challenges because of the high line speeds used in most federal poultry slaughter establishments, for practical purposes, groups of birds are assessed for uniformity of signs of consciousness or unconsciousness to gain an idea of whether stunning is effective, effectiveness of stunning is evaluated on an outcome basis (no signs of return to sensibility), however the signs of return to consciousness are progressive so it is important not to wait before implementing deviation procedures when observing any of these signs of consciousness during the monitoring procedures on an ongoing basis, the signs of consciousness/sensibility or unconsciousness/ insensibility vary with the species and the method of stunning used, the licence holder should include as part of the animal welfare PCP for poultry, effective measures for ensuring all birds are effectively stunned and no conscious birds enters the scald tank alive as the key outcome to prevent avoidable suffering to the individual bird, This includes the monitoring for signs that no birds are returning to sensibility at any point prior to entering the scald tank, including during the bleed-out step, monitoring at more than one point on the line is ideal and should include right after the stunning procedure and at some point during the bleed out process prior to the birds entering the scalding tank, a functioning reticular formation is required for the standing posture and is affected by all forms of stunning, Collapse occurs immediately after effective mechanical and electrical stunning, However, collapse can also be caused if the mechanical penetrative or electrical device is improperly place on the neck, bypassing the brain and resulting in immobilization or paralysis without unconsciousness, Gas stunning results in the gradual loss of the ability to stand, blinking is generated by an eye preservation reflex, absence of blinking indicates the required cranial nerves have lost sensory and motor function, involves circuits in the brainstem and cortex, monitoring for spontaneous blinking is a useful indicator of consciousness, spontaneous blinking must be absent after effective stunning, repeated spontaneous blinking can be a sign of consciousness, especially if occurring together with eye movements, focused on external stimuli, the nerves innervating the eyeball and pupil are non-functional, indicative that brain activity is impaired, a wide open, relaxed eye with a blank stare can be taken as a good indicator of unconsciousness, wide open, relaxed eyes and pupil can indicate a dead animal, corneal reflex and palpebral reflex have similar neural circuits but palpebral disappears first, absence indicates a loss of brain stem function and thus loss of sensibility, do not use corneal reflex to evaluate efficacy of electric stunning because of tonic seizure activity which may affect eyeball muscles, can be taken as a sign that the brain is reorganizing after stunning, absence of corneal reflex is a reliable indicator of unconsciousness, vertical or horizontal rapid oscillation of the eyeball or 'vibrating eye', presence of nystagmus suggests dysfunction in the underlying circuits of the brain or damage to the cerebellum of vestibular system, the implication of nystagmus depends on the stunning method used, nystagmus is often seen during seizure caused by effective electrical stunning in all species, especially at higher frequencies, if nystagmus occurs after captive bolt stunning this is generally associated with an ineffective stun and requires a restun, if intentional eye movements are present, the animal is conscious, involves higher-order cortical activity in perception and integration of information from the environment, hand or finger movement towards the eyes and a blinking or withdrawal reaction indicates animal is conscious, eyeball movement depends on muscles that receive information from brainstem, which is controlled by higher brain centres, full or partial eyeball rotation after mechanical stunning in cattle indicates a risk of return to consciousness and requires a second stun, intermittent forceful and disorganized inspiratory movements, rhythmic breathing is coordinated by the brainstem (medulla oblongata) and through information received from the periphery and higher brain centres, agonal gasping can be induced by ischemia or hypoxia and precedes death, absence of rhythmic breathing is consistent with unconsciousness or death, presence of breathing is a sign of return to sensibility after all methods of stunning, check the flank, nostril and mouth for signs of rhythmic breathing, gasping may be observed after effective electrical or gas stunning but should not occur after effective mechanical stunning, agonal gasping resembles the gasping movements of 'a fish out of water', when the breathing reflex starts to return, it can begin as regular gagging until recovery of rhythmic breathing, requires function of somatosensory and motor cortex, intentional vocalization indicates consciousness, when it occurs with stunning, is a pain response, gasping accompanied by guttural sounds are not the same as vocalization, kicking or paddling after stunning is most often a sign that inhibition of spinal nerve transmission patterns is lost, they are involuntary moments that are independent of consciousness, in addition, the somatic reflex arc may sometimes cause the unconscious animal after stunning to react to sticking/cutting painful stimuli, usually in the form of movement of the forelegs; these are spinal reflexes that do not involve the central nervous system, paddling of limbs can occur in unconscious animals during gas stunning but the body is limp, tonic seizures post-stunning are characterized by an arched back and rigidly flexed legs under the body; these are expected signs for mechanical and electrical stunning and are followed by clonic seizure activity that includes random leg kicking or paddling, evaluate with other signs and type of stunning method, righting reflex may be helped by subcortical CNS structures, but in most cases means function of the cerebral cortex and return of proprioception and muscle tone, righting may be impaired by shackling or restraint or the use of certain current forms in electrical stunning, an animal attempting to right itself will have an arched back, and attempt to raise its head or attempt to regain posture, if the righting reflex is present it is very likely that the animal is sensible, a relaxed tail does not occur together with an arched back or righting, body hangs straight down except sheep with neck hanging at an angle because of different anatomy, a floppy, flaccid, relaxed head and neck, hanging straight down in shackled animals indicates that muscle tone and in most cases cerebral control over posture are lost, if the head is floppy, in most cases consciousness is lost, muscle tension in the jaw, mouth or lips can indicate presence of cranial nerve function (sign of returning to sensibility), these signs can be useful indicators of poor stunning particularly in animals that are stunned with a captive bolt (less useful with firearm, electrical or gas stunning ), response to nose prick or pinch or ear pinch may indicate presence of cortical nerve activity in the respective circuit of sensory and motor cranial nerves, other responses may be a simple nociceptive arc-reflex response, based on a neural circuit that passes through the spinal cord, but not the brain, the nerves involved in the arc-reflex retain some functionality for a while after unconsciousness, response to nose prick/ear pinch may indicate consciousness or possible return to sensibility, ventral movement of neck in response to cutting of skin and blood vessels can be a nociceptive reflex response involving the spinal cord only; the reaction to the skin cut and other tissues cannot be used as an indicator of consciousness, need to evaluate with other signs, such as whether the head is floppy, a relaxed tongue may indicate loss of cranial nerve function, The tongue may hang out also due to gravity when the jaw muscles are relaxed, and this is a sign that the animal is unconscious, This can be confirmed by manipulating the jaws by hand and if there is no resistance to movement, the animal is unconscious, A curled tongue can be a sign of possible return to sensibility, neck positions are variable but should be consistent for all birds in a lot using same electrical parameters, for example the necks will be initially stiff and arched (perhaps parallel to the ground when shackled); this phase will rapidly disappear after neck cutting so applies to step between stunning neck cutting, then the head and neck will become limp after the clonic seizure phase is finished; flaccid head, absence of rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movements to indicate breathing), absence of spontaneous blinking and the third eyelid (nictitating membrane) reflex, absence of other eye reflexes (palpebral, corneal and pupillary).

types of slaughtering methods

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